Where does the name jack-o'-lanterns come from?

Halloween

The term jack-o'-lantern dates back as far as 1663 and was first used to refer to people. The term meant "night watchman" or "man with a lantern". Not more than a decade or so later people began using the term to describe strange lights that appeared over swamps and bogs at nighttime. Later there became a scientific explanation for the mystery - the lights are created by gas put off by decomposing plant matter that ignites when it come in contact with heat or electricity- but for centuries they were explained by stories and legends that revolved around a man named Jack.Old Irish legends from the 1500s say that a man called Stingy Jack played tricks on the devil. He would convince the devil to do things for him and then trap him. Jack once convinced the devil to change into a coin to pay for drinks but instead Jack kept the coin in his pocket with a silver cross which trapped the devil from changing back. Another time he trapped him up a tree by carving a cross in it. Each time that he released the devil he would make him promise not to seek revenge and that he would not claim his soul whenever he passed away.When Jack finally passed away, God would not allow him into heaven and the devil kept his promise by rejecting Jack at the Gates of Hell. He gave Jack a single lit coal and told him to go "find his own hell". It is said that Jack carved out a turnip to carry the coal in and his soul wanders the Earth. The legend says that the lights are Jack's improvisations and they move about as his restless soul does and were deemed "Jack of the Lanterns" or "Jack-o'-Lanterns".

Previous questionWhich group of people consider Halloween to be the last day of the year?
Next questionIs it a bad idea to celebrate Halloween?

Related question

Where did the name Jack O '- lantern come from?

The practice of decorating “jack-o'-lanterns”—the name comes from an Irish folktale about a man named Stingy Jack—originated in Ireland, where large turnips and potatoes served as an early canvas.

Read more

Where does the origin of jack-o'-lanterns come from?

The story of Jack Of the lantern. One story is that Jack stole from his neighbors, so the devil told him it was time for him to die. Jack told him to turn into a coin, and The devil did so, in jumped into Jack's pocket which had a cross in it. The cross took away the devils powers. This was a sho...

Read more

Where does the jack-o'-lanterns story come from?

From someone who got accute Pancreas cancer after walking around with a latern. Because of the tumor he got so mutiliated that he became a legend.

Read more

Where does the word jack-o-lantern come from?

Jack-o -lantern was originally carved in a Swede or turnip to make a lantern, Its associated with a fairly unknown occurance called will-o-the-wisp This was said to be related to the misterious lights seen across the peat bogs of ireland caused by escaping gas. The term Jack is not a person but o...

Read more

Where do jack-o-lanterns come from?

Jack-o-lanterns are made from carved pumpkins. This tradtion originally began in Europe, particularly Ireland, where they carved other root vegetbales, like turnips. In America, the tradition switched over to pumpkins because they were larger and easier to carve and more native to growing in the ...

Read more

Where do jack o '- lanterns come from?

On all Hallow's eve, the Irish hollowed out Turnips, rutabagas, gourds, potatoes and beets.They placed a light in them to ward off evil spirits and keep Stingy Jack away.These were the original Jack O'Lanterns.In the 1800's a couple of waves of Irish immigrants came to America.

Read more

Where does the name jack-o-latern come from?

the Jack- o- lantern originates from the story of a irish man named jack

Read more

Where did the term jack o lantern come from?

The practice of decorating “jack-o'-lanterns”—the name comes from an Irish folktale about a man named Stingy Jack—originated in Ireland, where large turnips and potatoes served as an early canvas.

Read more

Where did the term jack o '- lantern come from?

The practice of decorating “jack-o'-lanterns”—the name comes from an Irish folktale about a man named Stingy Jack—originated in Ireland, where large turnips and potatoes served as an early canvas.

Read more

Where does the Jack-o'-lantern originate from?

the Jack o' lantern comes from Europe

Read more

Where are jack o' lanterns originally from?

They originated from Ireland.

Read more

Where did Jack O '- lanterns originated from?

The practice of decorating “jack-o'-lanterns”—the name comes from an Irish folktale about a man named Stingy Jack—originated in Ireland, where large turnips and potatoes served as an early canvas.

Read more

Where did the idea of a jack-o'-lantern come from?

No one knows for sure when the first Jack-o-lanterns were made. In ancient times the Celts celebrated the feast of Samhain (pronounced: SOW'en) in Ireland and Scotland, and that holiday eventually became known as Halloween. The Celts believed that on that day the spirits of the dead roamed the ea...

Read more

What are jack o '- lanterns named after?

Irish legend has it that this use of jack-o'-lantern was named after a fellow named Stingy Jack.Stingy Jack thought he had tricked the devil, but the devil had the last laugh, condemning Jack to an eternity of wandering the planet with only an ember of hellfire for light.

Read more

Who was jack in the name jack-o'-lanterns?

It comes from an Irish legend about Stingy Jack. Stingy Jack went drinking with the devil. He convinced the devil to turn himself into a coin so they could have some alcohol. The devil did. Then stingy Jack put a silver cross next to the coin so the devil could not turn back. Finally he agreed to...

Read more

Where did the use of jack 'o lanterns originate from?

To the best of my knowledge, basically, in the very old days, people would use turnips (used in Ireland and Scotland), potatoes, etc., to carve spooky faces in and supposedly scare off evil spirits. North American immigrants then realized pumpkins would do the job even better, as they are softer,...

Read more

What does the jack-o-lantern came from?

The Jack-o'-Lantern gets it's roots from the Gaelic festival of Samhain, where the glowing shell of a hollowed out turnip - not pumpkin - would be set out to ward off the creatures of the Underworld. When the European tradition came to America, pumpkins were much easier to come by than turnips, a...

Read more

What country does the jack-o-lantern story originate from?

ireland im so sure of that

Read more

How did the jack o lantern get its name?

The practice of decorating “jack-o'-lanterns”—the name comes from an Irish folktale about a man named Stingy Jack—originated in Ireland, where large turnips and potatoes served as an early canvas.

Read more

Why are Jack O '- lanterns called jack o '- lanterns?

Who are jack-o'-lanterns named for? By the mid-1800s, what was called a turnip lantern became known as a jack-o'-lantern.Young boys used these hollowed-out and lit-up gourds to spook people.Irish legend has it that this use of jack-o'-lantern was named after a fellow named Stingy Jack.

Read more

Where did the term jack o lanterm come from?

Jack was getting chased by some villagers from whom he had stolen, when he met the Devil, who claimed it was time for him to die. However, the thief stalled his death by tempting the Devil with a chance to bedevil the church-going villagers chasing him. Jack told the Devil to turn into a coin wit...

Read more

What country are jack o lanterns from?

I think they are from china? or stuff like tht

Read more

How did the Jack-O-Lantern get its name?

Jack O'Lanterns have been part of Halloween for hundreds of years in both the U.S. and Great Britain, where our familiar 'pumpkin lanterns' are often made from large turnips. The name 'Jack O'Lantern' is not nearly as old as Halloween and originally had nothing to do with the holiday. 'Jack O'Lan...

Read more

What does the o mean in Jack-o'-lantern?

AnswerIt's short for 'Of' as in Jack Of The Lantern or Jack Of Lantern,

Read more

What does the O in jack o lantern mean?

The term jack-o'-lantern has been used in American English to describe a lantern made from a hollowed-out pumpkin since the 19th century, but the term originated in 17th-century Britain, where it was used to refer to a man with a lantern or to a night watchman.We know where 'jack-o'-lantern' come...

Read more

Where did the nameJack-o-lanterns come from?

the name comes from an Irish folktale about a man named Stingy Jack-originated in Ireland, where large turnips and potatoes served as an early canvas. Irish immigrants brought the tradition to America, home of the pumpkin, and it became an integral part of Halloween festivities

Read more

Where did Jack-o-lanterns originate?

It originated with the Irish and a fellow named "Stingy Jack." Here is the story from history.com: According to the story, Stingy Jack invited the Devil to have a drink with him. True to his name, Stingy Jack didn't want to pay for his drink, so he convinced the Devil to turn himself into a coin ...

Read more

Where did the Jack-O-Latern come from?

No one knows for sure when the first Jack-o-lanterns were made. In ancient times the Celts celebrated the feast of Samhain (pronounced: SOW'en) in Ireland and Scotland, and that holiday eventually became known as Halloween. The Celts believed that on that day the spirits of the dead roamed the ea...

Read more

From what country did the jack-o'-lanterns originate?

They originated in Spain

Read more

What were the first jack-o'-lanterns carved from?

The first Jack of the Lanterns were probably carved into a turnip or potato. The turnip eventually became the Jack o' Lantern vegetable, that is, until those people (from Ireland) started moving to America. They could not find many turnips, so they started carving pumpkins, instead.

Read more

How did a jack o lantern get its name?

Its name comes from the phenomenon of a strange light flickering over peat bogs, called will-o'-the-wisp or jack-o'-lantern.The name is also tied to the Irish legend of Stingy Jack, a drunkard who bargains with Satan and is doomed to roam the Earth with only a hollowed turnip to light his way.

Read more

What does the jack o lantern symbolize?

On all Hallow's eve, the Irish hollowed out Turnips, rutabagas, gourds, potatoes and beets.They placed a light in them to ward off evil spirits and keep Stingy Jack away.These were the original Jack O'Lanterns.In the 1800's a couple of waves of Irish immigrants came to America.

Read more

Where did the idea of the jack-o'-lantern come about?

The was this cult way back when and they were satanic hint satanic holiday, haloween. Well each haloween night they sacraficed a child so they wld be left alone by the demon the belived in and if u had a Jack'o'lantern on your porch u idn't have to sacrafice your child.

Read more

Where do Jack-o'-Lanterns originate?

It originated in Ireland.

Read more

What does jack-o'-lanterns look like?

a carved out pumpkin face like a pumpkin

Read more

What were the first jack o '- lanterns carved from?

The original jack-o'-lanterns were carved from turnips, potatoes or beets.Immigrants from these countries brought the jack o'lantern tradition with them when they came to the United States.They soon found that pumpkins, a fruit native to America, make perfect jack-o'-lanterns.

Read more

What was the first jack o lantern carved from?

The original jack-o'-lanterns were carved from turnips, potatoes or beets.

Read more

What were the first jack o lanterns made from?

The first jack-o-lanterns were made of turnips.

Read more

What is another name for a jack o lantern?

A poisonous luminescent orange fungus, Omphalotus olearius, is commonly known as the jack-o'-lantern mushroom!

Read more

What were the first jack o lanterns carved from?

The original jack-o'-lanterns were carved from turnips, potatoes or beets.

Read more

Where were jack-o-lanterns originated?

Jack-o-lanterns originated in Mexico for the night of the living dead celebration (Halloween) to keep away evil spirits.

Read more

Where are the Jack o lanterns on mysims?

if you go into the forest and then go into the cave you will find a tree with jack o lanterns growing on it.

Read more

What was the first jack-o'-lantern carved from?

They were carved out of turnips.

Read more

What is a another name for a jack-o'-lanterns?

no there is not another name

Read more

Where did the custom of the jack-o'-lantern originate?

there was a man named jack o that needed a lantern on his way home from his mother's house. Jack got lost but came across a homeless person. Jack then cut his head off and scooped the brains out, he then found a candle and put it in the head. Hence the term Jack O Lantern.

Read more

What does a Jack-o-Lantern symbolize?

/* Required */ var site = '682150'; var mnum = '139010'; /* Not Required */ var max_words = 3 ; var max_links_per_word = 4 ; var link_color = '0107A1'; var boxbg_color = 'FFFAEA'; var boxtitle_color = 'black'; var boxdesc_color = 'black'; var boxurl_color = 'red'; var ignore_words = 'quiz,cool,...

Read more

What does Jack o lantern mean?

jack was a man that was a prankster that played a joke on the devil he said to climb a tree and he got stuck but the devil got the last laugh jack was doomed to roam the earth forever with only a little tunnip lantern and pumpkins were more populated in fall so that why we have jack o lanterns bu...

Read more

What does Jack O Lantern stand for?

to warn off spirits Homie

Read more

How long does jack o lantern last?

"If the pumpkin was healthy when picked and diseases were controlled in the field, the pumpkin can last 8 to 12 weeks," he says via email.He adds jack-o-lanterns don't fare as well: They last five to 10 days.The best storage temperature for pumpkins ranges between 50 to 55 degrees Fahrenheit, he ...

Read more

What are words made from 'jack-o'-lantern'?

Jack o lantern words are: lean, neat, ran, ton, lane, jock, jerk, jack, ant, earn, rack, lack, tack, near.

Read more

Where did the term jack-o'-lantern originate?

It originated with the Irish and a fellow named "Stingy Jack." According to the story, Stingy Jack invited the Devil to have a drink with him. True to his name, Stingy Jack didn't want to pay for his drink, so he convinced the Devil to turn himself into a coin that Jack could use to buy their dr...

Read more

What toxin does the jack o lantern mushroom contain?

Omphalotus olearius is the Latin name for the interesting jack o'lantern mushroom.Famous for its bright color and bioluminescent properties, the jack o'lantern is also a poisonous mushroom.This mushroom contains the toxin muscarine, which causes severe cramps and diarrhea.

Read more

What does the word Jack-O-Lantern mean?

Its actually the Latern of Jack. Its from an old Irish legend of a man called Stingy Jack who tricked the devil into keeping him out of hell. After he dies though Satan remembers him and wont let him into hell and he was too bad to go to heaven. But he is given a live coal. Jack puts the coal int...

Read more

Who invented jack o lanterns?

The Irish brought the tradition of carving pumpkins into Jack O'Lantern to America.But, the original Jack O'Lantern was not a pumpkin.Pumpkins did not exist in Ireland.Ancient Celtic cultures in Ireland carved turnips on All Hallow's Eve, and placed an ember in them, to ward off evil spirits.

Read more

Why are the vegetable lanterns called jack-o'-lantern?

See the link below, and scroll down to the stories about "Jack of the lantern".

Read more

What country started the jack o lantern?

On all Hallow's eve, the Irish hollowed out Turnips, rutabagas, gourds, potatoes and beets.They placed a light in them to ward off evil spirits and keep Stingy Jack away.These were the original Jack O'Lanterns.In the 1800's a couple of waves of Irish immigrants came to America.

Read more

What is the Jack o lantern mushroom?

the jack lantern is when you cut the pumpkin and take all the things in it and put the light in it that called jack o lantern

Read more

What were jack o lanterns originally carved from?

The original jack-o'-lanterns were carved from turnips, potatoes or beets.In Ireland and Scotland, people began to make their own versions of Jack's lanterns by carving scary faces into turnips or potatoes and placing them into windows or near doors to frighten away Stingy Jack and other wanderin...

Read more

How do you keep a jack o lantern from rotting?

Fill a spray bottle with a solution of one tablespoon bleach per quart of water.Spray interior and cut surfaces liberally, allowing it to penetrate and dry.This formula is said to kill off surface bacteria and mold that can lead to rot.

Read more

Which folklore did jack-o'-lantern custom from?

The essential Halloween Jack-O'-Lantern comes from a nineteenth century Irish folktale about a corrupt and wicked turnip farmer named Jack who trapped and caught the Devil. In exchange for release, he made a deal in which the Devil promised to never take his soul. When Jack finally died, his life...

Read more

What vegetable were Jack o lanterns originally carved from?

The vegetable was a turnip. It was a turnip because the Celts believed that the head contained wisdom and the energy of the body. They would "headhunt" them and stick them to the doors to frighten off harmful spirits. Pumpkins are usually carved to make jack-o-lanterns.

Read more

How can you keep your jack-o-lanterns from rotting?

Make sure they are really fresh and not bruised. Keep them cool. You can actually purchase a spray called "Pumpkin Fresh" that will keep the carved pumpkins fresh longer. Other home remedies include soaking the carved pumpkin in bleach for 8 hours before setting it out, rubbing the inside with V...

Read more

What were Jack O Lantern's originally carved from?

The original jack-o'-lanterns were carved from turnips, potatoes or beets.Immigrants from these countries brought the jack o'lantern tradition with them when they came to the United States.They soon found that pumpkins, a fruit native to America, make perfect jack-o'-lanterns.

Read more

How do you keep jack o lanterns from rotting?

Fill a spray bottle with a solution of one tablespoon bleach per quart of water.Spray interior and cut surfaces liberally, allowing it to penetrate and dry.This formula is said to kill off surface bacteria and mold that can lead to rot.

Read more

Why does the jack-o'-lanterns represent Halloween?

"On Hallows' eve, the ancient Celts would place a skeleton on their window sill to represent the departed. Originating in Europe, these lanterns were first carved from a turnip or rutabaga. Believing that the head was the most powerful part of the body, containing the spirit and the knowledge, th...

Read more

How do you keep a jack o lantern from molding?

Carve it in one sitting to keep it from drying out in the process.Spray it with water, if necessary.Soak or spray the pumpkin with a bleach or borax and water dilution to kill mold and bacteria.Coat the cut surfaces with petroleum jelly to keep it from drying out.

Read more

What is Jack o lanterns?

Jack-o-Lanterns are pumpkins that have the pulp and seeds removed from the inside, and are carved into different designs and faces. Usually, a candle is placed inside of them so it will glow in the night. Jack-o-Lanterns are primarily used for Halloween decor and celebration.

Read more

When was the jack o lantern invented?

The term jack-o'-lantern has been used in American English to describe a lantern made from a hollowed-out pumpkin since the 19th century, but the term originated in 17th-century Britain, where it was used to refer to a man with a lantern or to a night watchman.

Read more

Why are the vegtable lanterns called jack o lanterns?

Because the worlds famous Jack O Lantern died and everybody puts the jack o lanterns in there window sell so that it reminds people about Jack O Lantern.

Read more

Who is jack in jack o lantern?

This is an old tale that should explain things (from pumkinnook.com) "Stingy Jack was a miserable, old drunk who liked to play tricks on everyone: family, friends, his mother and even the Devil himself. One day, he tricked the Devil into climbing up an apple tree. Once the Devil climbed up the ap...

Read more

What was the first jack-o-lantern?

In America, the tradition of pumpkin carving began in 1834. It was associated with the harvest season in general, not Halloween when it began.

Read more

When did the jack o lantern originate?

The term jack-o'-lantern has been used in American English to describe a lantern made from a hollowed-out pumpkin since the 19th century, but the term originated in 17th-century Britain, where it was used to refer to a man with a lantern or to a night watchman.

Read more

How did the jack o lantern originate?

People have been making jack-o'-lanterns at Halloween for centuries.The practice originated from an Irish myth about a man nicknamed “Stingy Jack.” According to the story, Stingy Jack invited the Devil to have a drink with him.The original jack-o'-lanterns were carved from turnips, potatoes or be...

Read more

What were the first jack o lanterns?

Jack put the piece of coal in to a carved-out turnip to make a lantern to light his way.The Irish called this ghost “Jack of the Lantern,” or “Jack o'Lantern.” To ward off Stingy Jack and other malicious spirits, the Irish would carve their own jack-o'-lanterns made from turnips, beets, and potat...

Read more

History of Jack o lantern?

A guy named Jack was tanting the devil

Read more

What did the Jack-o-lantern do?

When the first Jack o lanterns were made, they were meant to scare away demons and vampires.

Read more

Who invented the jack o lantern?

On all Hallow's eve, the Irish hollowed out Turnips, rutabagas, gourds, potatoes and beets.They placed a light in them to ward off evil spirits and keep Stingy Jack away.These were the original Jack O'Lanterns.In the 1800's a couple of waves of Irish immigrants came to America.

Read more

Why are the vegetable lanterns called jack o lanterns?

cuz when jack lost his face he made a design of his face and so he could see he but a lantern so yeah

Read more

Where can I find cheap jack o lantern stencils?

People can locate cheap jack o lantern stencils. People can go to familyfun.go.com/halloween/pumpkin-carving.../jack-o-lanterns/ to find these stencils.

Read more

What is the name of the myth that is the basis for carving Jack O Lanterns?

I'm not sure there is a specific name for it, but Jack o'Lanterns originated from an old Irish myth about a man named Jack or "stingy Jack." Here is the story from history.com: According to the story, Stingy Jack invited the Devil to have a drink with him. True to his name, Stingy Jack didn...

Read more

Who made the first jack o lantern?

The original jack-o'-lanterns were carved from turnips, potatoes or beets.

Read more

Who invented the Jack o lantern?

Long long long story short there was guy named "Jack" that was taunting with the devil to make the climb a tree and the devil got stuck bcuz he is stupid and Jack was laughing so the devil put a curse on Jack to wonder the earth alone in the dark only with a little squash hollowed out and that ha...

Read more

How did the jack-o-lantern start?

I'm Irish, so the tradition I know started with carving turnips and posting them over the entrance to homes to ward off evil spirits on Samhain, which is when the veil between the world of the living and the dead is said to be its thinnest.

Read more

Who created the jack-o-lantern?

No one person created the jack-o-lantern. There are some stories about it though. The Celts made them after skeletons by carving turnips and placing candles inside. There is an Irish legend about a man named Stingy Jack. Jack trapped the devil by tricking him into climbing a tree and then carving...

Read more

Why are they called Jack o Lanterns?

A jack-o'-lantern (or jack o'lantern) is a carved pumpkin, turnip, or other root vegetable lantern associated with Halloween.Its name comes from the phenomenon of a strange light flickering over peat bogs, called will-o'-the-wisp or jack-o'-lantern.

Read more

What do jack o lanterns symbolize?

Jack-o'-lanterns were also made at Halloween time in Somerset (see Punkie Night) during the 19th century.By those who made them, the lanterns were said to represent either spirits or supernatural beings, or were used to ward off evil spirits.

Read more

What keeps jack o lanterns fresh?

Rub the carved or cut surfaces with petroleum jelly or vegetable oil cooking spray.This will keep out new bacteria and molds and help prevent your jack-o'-lantern from dehydrating.Keep your pumpkin out of direct sunlight and keep it as cool as possible – but above freezing.

Read more

What vegetable were jack-o-lanterns carved?

Historically, people in Ireland and Scotland, carved scary faces into turnips or potatoes and placing them into windows or near doors to frighten away wandering evil spirits. The English used large beets. Once immigrants came to the United States they discovered that pumpkins, a fruit native t...

Read more

Why do they make Jack O' lanterns?

To scare off vampires.

Read more

Why are jack o lanterns carved?

The lamps were originally carved from turnips and designed (as their pumpkin counterparts were) to dispel evil spirits, or, in some cases, vampires. There is a legend, obviously concocted, about a man named Stingy Jack who is cursed to walk the Earth with only a turnip lantern to guide him. He pr...

Read more

When did Jack o lanterns originate?

the jack-o-lantern was originated in the 1800s by the bad boy from ireland jack

Read more

Why did people make jack o lanterns?

The original jack-o'-lanterns were carved from turnips, potatoes or beets.In Ireland and Scotland, people began to make their own versions of Jack's lanterns by carving scary faces into turnips or potatoes and placing them into windows or near doors to frighten away Stingy Jack and other wanderin...

Read more

Does jack o lantern need to be capitalized?

“Jack O' Lantern” was spelled using capital letters in the lessons, and I figured I'd better check to make sure that was standard.Much to my surprise, not only did “jack-o'-lantern” not use capital letters, but it also uses hyphens, according to both Merriam-Webster's and the Oxford Canadian dict...

Read more

Where did jack o laterns originate from?

jack o lanterns originally came from the Celts and the Irish. It started when the Celts started to carve turnips and stuff them with candles to make them look like skeletons. The Irish had a story about a man named Stingy Jack. He tricked the devil into climbing a tree and then carved a cross int...

Read more

What is the origin of the jack o '- lantern?

On all Hallow's eve, the Irish hollowed out Turnips, rutabagas, gourds, potatoes and beets.They placed a light in them to ward off evil spirits and keep Stingy Jack away.These were the original Jack O'Lanterns.In the 1800's a couple of waves of Irish immigrants came to America.

Read more

What is the story behind the jack o lantern?

On all Hallow's eve, the Irish hollowed out Turnips, rutabagas, gourds, potatoes and beets.They placed a light in them to ward off evil spirits and keep Stingy Jack away.These were the original Jack O'Lanterns.In the 1800's a couple of waves of Irish immigrants came to America.

Read more

Where does the name Pomona come from?

Pomona (/pəˈmoʊnə/; Latin: Pōmōna [poːˈmoːna]) was a goddess of fruitful abundance in ancient Roman religion and myth.Her name comes from the Latin word pomum, "fruit," specifically orchard fruit.Pomona was said to be a wood nymph.

Read more

Where does the name October come from?

October got its name from the Latin “octo”, meaning “eight”.If this seems odd to you, considering it's the tenth month in the modern day calendar (Gregorian), that actually used to not be the case.It was once the eighth month (in the Roman Calendar) and the name simply carried over.

Read more

Why do people carve jack-o-lanterns?

we carve pumpkins to represent stingy jack's smile when he tricked the devil into hell on halloween you use jackolaterns to show the spirits where you are

Read more

What do jack o lanterns scare away?

Demons and dead souls.

Read more