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Strictly calculated: how many calories should you have in your diet?
Calories are, in other words, the energy that our body consumes and expends. In this case, knowing your daily allowance, which we receive with food, is very important. Especially if you have a specific goal - losing weight, gaining mass or fixing weight.
In order to understand how to correctly calculate the individual daily calorie intake and what the diet should consist of, the Championship talked with our experts: nutritionist Maria Ratnikova , physician, TV presenter Alexey Bezymyanny and elite trainer of the World Class network Vladimir Bardin .
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How to correctly calculate energy consumption, starting from a specific goal?
There are several formulas by which you can roughly estimate your daily energy consumption. It consists of several large parts. The most basic is the level of basic metabolism, that is, the amount of energy that a person spends on maintaining vital processes: so that the heart contracts, the lungs breathe, a constant body temperature is maintained, and so on. There are actually several formulas. They take into account, as a rule, height, gender, weight and age. There are also more accurate ones, in which the body composition is taken into account (the amount of muscle, fat mass, the amount of water). If only gender, height, age and weight are known, then you can also calculate the daily calorie intake, but you should understand that such a calculation will definitely contain an error. An adult man, 190 cm tall and weighing 120 kg - he can be with an increased percentage of fat and with a lower, it turns out, the level of basal metabolism; or he may have a large percentage of muscle mass, which gives him a correspondingly increased basal metabolic rate.
Then everything is multiplied by the coefficient of physical activity, because besides how to exist, just live, a person also does something, spends energy, generates thoughts, emotions, moves the body in space, works, trains and so on ... The ratios depend on the level of physical activity, but they are also, in general, approximate.
All this gives as a result the figure of the average daily energy consumption. And from this figure it is necessary to build on in the future, depending on the goal set for yourself.
Individual calorie intake can be calculated using the so-called calculator .
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Purpose: keeping fit
If a person wants to keep fit without changing their own weight and body composition, the nutritionist advises him to eat exactly as much as he spends .
Purpose: gaining mass
If a person wants to gain weight, then he should eat a little more than he spends. This is approximately plus 15-20% to the recommended figure.
Purpose: losing weight
If the task is to reduce your own weight, then you need to act in reversem way: cut 15-20% of the recommended amount of calories.
You need to know that you need a smooth transition, nothing abrupt should be, because any measure to change the body composition is stress for the body. Naturally, the smoother the transition from one indicator of calorie consumption to another, the easier a person will enter into this, the more likely he will continue to maintain this diet and get some kind of result, and will also be able to keep it without serious breakdowns and harm for health.
What to do in case of weight stagnation?
If nothing happens and we have adapted for some time to a certain calorie intake, then there are several methods of promotion and exit out of this situation. For example, fasting and detox days, stressful workout options. Everything here is very, very individually selected. It is better to do this under the direct guidance of a nutritionist and a trainer, because if you compose some kind of unloading diet for yourself, you can only harm.
What should a healthy diet consist of?
The body should receive proteins, fats, carbohydrates and, of course, fiber. It is needed in order to remove all toxins and harmful substances, decay products. Mostly people who play sports should not have dietary restrictions. It should be balanced and distributed throughout the day. If we can afford to eat fast carbohydrates in the morning, then we must mean that after there will be physical activity. In turn, it is worth remembering that fat intake does not imply post-intake exercise. And proteins must be included in the diet after exercise.
An interesting fact: before exercise, include carbohydrates in the diet, and after - proteins. Eat fat in moderation throughout the day.
Cannot be divided snack on certain foods, such as proteins or fats separately. Because if you consume more proteins, then due to their breakdown to amino and amino acids, kidney function will be disrupted. In the future, this can turn into inflammatory kidney diseases. Therefore, the diet should be varied.
How to properly adjust your diet, if there is a specific goal?
Purpose: Keeping fit
In order to maintain your weight, it is first of all recommended to normalize the water balance in the body, be sure to drink water. In addition, you need to lead an active lifestyle and devote time to walking (at least 7-8 thousand steps a day). In the end, according to the doctor's recommendation, you should eat fractionally, do not overeat, especially in the evening, reduce the use of starchy foods, baked goods and fast sugars. It is better to eat five to six times a day regularly.
Target: mass gain
If you want to gain muscle mass, then, on the advice of our expert physician Alexey Bezymyanny, you need to add more proteins to your diet, which are the building blocks that form muscle muscles. As for carbohydrates, you need to eat them both slow and fast. Fast carbs are great after exercise because exercise uses up almost all of our energy and needs to restore glycogen levels.
Purpose: weight loss
If a person has a clear goal - to lose weight, then drying can help him. It means reducing the amount of carbohydrates to a minimum (but not completely eliminating them!), Increasing the amount of protein in the first week, exercising under the control of the heart rate in the range of 110-140 beats per minute.