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Scientists have found that physical activity can improve genetics
The benefits of regular exercise are well known and beyond question. Constant exercise can help improve health, slow aging, and prevent type 2 diabetes, cancer and heart disease. However, the mechanisms underlying all these miraculous effects are still poorly understood and are of great interest to scientists.
Researchers from Sweden and the United States have found out in which case physical activity has the most beneficial effect on health and brings positive changes at the genetic level.
So what kinds of sports and how long do you need to do to prevent disease and even deceive genetics?
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What to do to improve genes?
Research on the effect of exercise on the molecules of the human body has recently been carried out quite often, but mostly they are devoted to the short-term changes that occur as a result of individual training. Scientists from the University of San Diego and Karolinska University in Sweden have teamed up to look at the problem from a different angle and study the effects of consistent training over a long period.
Although short training has been shown to be affect the activity of molecules in our muscles, it is a commitment to habitual exercise over the years that provides long-term health benefits. Understanding how our muscles change over years of training is critical to determining the link between exercise and health, says study leader Mark Chapman.
40 volunteers took part in the study, 25 of them did physical activity at least Over the past 15 years: 9 men and 9 women regularly did endurance training (running or cycling) and 7 men did strength training. The rest of the experiment participants - 7 men and 8 women - are healthy, but physically unprepared people of the appropriate age.
All subjects underwent skeletal muscle biopsy to measure the activity of more than 20,000 genes.
It turned out that those who are constantly running or cycling, the activity of more than 1000 genes differs significantly from the parameters of people from the control group. Many of the altered genes are associated with the prevention of metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes.
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The results of the study were unexpectedfor weightlifters - significant changes were found in only 26 genes. However, the scientists say, this does not mean that strength training does not have a positive effect on health in the long term. The fact is that in this experiment, RNA molecules were used to control the parameters, and changes as a result of strength training may be associated with proteins.
A year of training improves metabolism
The researchers also compared the findings with the results of tests taken in people with type 2 diabetes before and after monthly training period. It turned out that even after a short period of regular physical activity, gene activity in people with metabolic disorders begins to approach the characteristics of constant adherents of intense training.
This suggests that even training programs lasting 6-12 months are enough to have a positive effect on the health of people with metabolic disorders. The study helped identify genes that are sensitive to exercise, says Karl Johan Sundberg, professor at Karolinska University.